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“首例代孕案”进最高法报告

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019年09月21日 13:39:28
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(  3月)(12日)(上)(午)(,十)(二)(届)(全)(国)(人)(大)(五)(次)(会)(议)(在)(人)(民)(大)(会)(堂)(举)(行)(第)(三)(次)(全)(体)(会)(议)(,会)(议)(听)(取)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(院)(长)(周)(强)(关)(于)(最)(高)(人)(民)(法)(院)(工)(作)(的)(报)(告)(,听)(取)(最)(高)(人)(民)(检)(察)(院)(检)(察)(长)(曹)(建)(明)(关)(于)(最)(高)(人)(民)(检)(察)(院)(工)(作)(的)(报)(告)(。其)(中)(,周)(强)(在)(报)(告)(中)(特)(别)(提)(到)(,上)(海)(法)(院)(审)(结)(全)(国)(首)(例)(代)(孕)(引)(发)(的)(监)(护)(权)(纠)(纷)(案)(,以)(“儿)(童)(利)(益)(最)(大)(化)(”原)(则)(明)(确)(监)(护)(权)(归)(属)(。
  在)(现)(行)(法)(律)(下)(,代)(孕)(属)(于)(非)(法)(行)(为)(,那)(么)(全)(国)(首)(例)(代)(孕)(引)(发)(的)(监)(护)(权)(纠)(纷)(案)(又)(是)(怎)(么)(回)(事)(,为)(何)(被)(写)(入)(最)(高)(法)(报)(告)(?代)(孕)(生)(产)(的)(子)(女)(最)(终)(“判)(”给)(了)(谁)(?齐)(鲁)(晚)(报)(·齐)(鲁)(壹)(点)(记)(者)(为)(您)(带)(来)(详)(解)(。
长)(久)(以)(来)(,公)(众)(对)(“代)(孕)(”的)(风)(险)(都)(很)(关)(注)(。(资)(料)(图)()
  非)(法)(购)(买)(卵)(子)(
  生)(下)(异)(卵)(双)(胞)(胎)(
  根)(据)(媒)(体)(报)(道)(,大)(概)(案)(情)(是)(:一)(对)(婚)(后)(未)(能)(生)(育)(的)(夫)(妇)(求)(子)(心)(切)(,想)(方)(设)(法)(找)(来)(卵)(子)(并)(“借)(腹)(”代)(孕)(生)(了)(一)(对)(龙)(凤)(胎)(。而)(一)(双)(儿)(女)(才)(满)(三)(岁)(,孩)(子)(的)(父)(亲)(却)(突)(然)(罹)(患)(疾)(病)(离)(世)(。而)(后)(,公)(婆)(和)(儿)(媳)(之)(间)(爆)(发)(了)(争)(夺)(孩)(子)(监)(护)(权)(的)(诉)(讼)(“大)(战)(”。一)(审)(法)(院)(把)(孩)(子)(“判)(”给)(了)(爷)(爷)(奶)(奶)(,而)(二)(审)(“改)(判)(”给)(了)(毫)(无)(血)(缘)(关)(系)(的)(“妈)(妈)(”。
  李)(鹃)(与)(林)(西)(均)(系)(再)(婚)(。李)(鹃)(患)(有)(不)(孕)(不)(育)(症)(,两)(人)(商)(定)(通)(过)(体)(外)(授)(精)(及)(代)(孕)(方)(式)(生)(育)(子)(女)(。其)(后)(,两)(人)(非)(法)(购)(买)(卵)(子)(,将)(林)(西)(的)(精)(子)(及)(购)(买)(的)(卵)(子)(委)(托)(医)(疗)(机)(构)(进)(行)(体)(外)(授)(精)(并)(形)(成)(受)(精)(卵)(;然)(后)(,非)(法)(委)(托)(他)(人)(代)(孕)(,前)(后)(共)(支)(出)(约)(80万)(元)(。
  2011年)(2月)(,异)(卵)(双)(胞)(胎)(小)(花)(和)(小)(军)(出)(生)(。李)(鹃)(通)(过)(非)(法)(手)(段)(办)(理)(了)(出)(生)(医)(学)(证)(明)(,登)(记)(的)(生)(父)(母)(分)(别)(为)(林)(西)(、李)(鹃)(,并)(据)(此)(办)(理)(户)(籍)(申)(报)(。
  天)(有)(不)(测)(风)(云)(。2014年)(2月)(7日)(,林)(西)(因)(重)(症)(胰)(腺)(炎)(突)(然)(入)(院)(,两)(天)(后)(抢)(救)(无)(效)(死)(亡)(。此)(后)(,两)(名)(小)(孩)(随)(李)(鹃)(共)(同)(生)(活)(。
  林)(西)(去)(世)(后)(,一)(场)(“抢)(娃)(大)(战)(”旋)(即)(上)(演)(。2015年)(12月)(29日)(,林)(西)(的)(父)(母)(也)(就)(是)(两)(个)(孩)(子)(的)(爷)(爷)(奶)(奶)(诉)(至)(法)(院)(,要)(求)(成)(为)(小)(花)(和)(小)(军)(的)(监)(护)(人)(,抚)(养)(两)(个)(小)(孩)(。他)(们)(的)(理)(由)(是)(,林)(西)(是)(两)(个)(孩)(子)(的)(生)(父)(,但)(李)(鹃)(与)(他)(们)(无)(亲)(生)(血)(缘)(关)(系)(,且)(未)(形)(成)(法)(律)(规)(定)(的)(拟)(制)(血)(亲)(关)(系)(。
  审)(理)(中)(,法)(院)(委)(托)(权)(威)(机)(构)(进)(行)(鉴)(定)(,依)(据)(现)(有)(资)(料)(和)(DNA分)(析)(结)(果)(,不)(排)(除)(林)(西)(父)(母)(与)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(之)(间)(存)(在)(祖)(孙)(亲)(缘)(关)(系)(,同)(时)(可)(以)(排)(除)(李)(鹃)(为)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(的)(生)(物)(学)(母)(亲)(。
  2015年)(7月)(29日)(,一)(审)(以)(李)(鹃)(与)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(之)(间)(欠)(缺)(法)(定)(的)(必)(备)(要)(件)(故)(未)(建)(立)(合)(法)(的)(收)(养)(关)(系)(,以)(及)(代)(孕)(行)(为)(本)(身)(不)(具)(合)(法)(性)(,李)(鹃)(与)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(不)(构)(成)(拟)(制)(血)(亲)(关)(系)(等)(为)(由)(,判)(决)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(由)(原)(告)(老)(高)(夫)(妇)(监)(护)(,李)(鹃)(将)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(交)(由)(两)(原)(告)(抚)(养)(。
  先)(判)(给)(爷)(爷)(奶)(奶)(
  又)(改)(判)(给)(“妈)(妈)(”
  一)(审)(判)(决)(后)(,李)(鹃)(不)(服)(,向)(上)(海)(一)(中)(法)(院)(提)(起)(了)(上)(诉)(。李)(鹃)(当)(庭)(称)(:“如)(果)(获)(得)(孩)(子)(的)(监)(护)(权)(,我)(将)(以)(自)(己)(的)(能)(力)(抚)(养)(,并)(同)(意)(法)(院)(将)(两)(名)(孩)(子)(继)(承)(所)(得)(的)(财)(产)(冻)(结)(,等)(孩)(子)(年)(满)(十)(八)(周)(岁)(之)(后)(再)(给)(孩)(子)(。”李)(鹃)(还)(表)(示)(,如)(其)(取)(得)(两)(名)(孩)(子)(的)(监)(护)(权)(,会)(同)(意)(公)(公)(婆)(婆)(探)(望)(孩)(子)(。
  但)(这)(一)(番)(表)(态)(并)(不)(为)(老)(高)(夫)(妇)(所)(接)(受)(,他)(们)(始)(终)(坚)(持)(要)(求)(取)(得)(两)(个)(孩)(子)(的)(监)(护)(权)(。
  上)(海)(一)(中)(法)(院)(审)(理)(后)(认)(为)(,小)(花)(、小)(军)(是)(李)(鹃)(与)(林)(西)(结)(婚)(后)(,由)(林)(西)(与)(其)(他)(女)(性)(以)(代)(孕)(方)(式)(生)(育)(的)(子)(女)(,属)(于)(缔)(结)(婚)(姻)(关)(系)(后)(夫)(妻)(一)(方)(的)(非)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(。两)(名)(孩)(子)(出)(生)(后)(,一)(直)(随)(林)(西)(、李)(鹃)(夫)(妇)(共)(同)(生)(活)(近)(三)(年)(之)(久)(,林)(西)(去)(世)(后)(又)(随)(李)(鹃)(共)(同)(生)(活)(达)(两)(年)(,李)(鹃)(与)(小)(花)(、小)(军)(已)(形)(成)(有)(抚)(养)(关)(系)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(,其)(权)(利)(义)(务)(适)(用)(《婚)(姻)(法)(》关)(于)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(的)(规)(定)(。而)(作)(为)(祖)(父)(母)(的)(老)(高)(夫)(妇)(,监)(护)(顺)(序)(在)(李)(鹃)(之)(后)(,故)(其)(提)(起)(监)(护)(权)(主)(张)(不)(符)(合)(法)(律)(规)(定)(的)(条)(件)(,同)(时)(,从)(儿)(童)(最)(大)(利)(益)(原)(则)(考)(虑)(,由)(李)(鹃)(取)(得)(监)(护)(权)(亦)(更)(有)(利)(于)(孩)(子)(的)(健)(康)(成)(长)(,故)(改)(判)(驳)(回)(被)(上)(诉)(人)(老)(高)(夫)(妇)(的)(原)(审)(诉)(讼)(请)(求)(。
  男)(子)(与)(代)(孕)(者)(未)(结)(婚)(
  故)(子)(女)(实)(为)(非)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(
  本)(案)(合)(议)(庭)(审)(判)(长)(兼)(主)(审)(法)(官)(侯)(卫)(清)(表)(示)(,代)(孕)(所)(生)(子)(女)(的)(亲)(子)(关)(系)(认)(定)(具)(有)(一)(定)(的)(复)(杂)(性)(,关)(系)(到)(代)(孕)(目)(的)(的)(实)(现)(、各)(方)(当)(事)(人)(的)(利)(益)(、代)(孕)(所)(生)(子)(女)(的)(权)(益)(保)(护)(等)(,更)(需)(考)(虑)(到)(公)(众)(基)(于)(传)(统)(的)(伦)(理)(观)(念)(、文)(化)(背)(景)(等)(的)(接)(受)(程)(度)(。目)(前)(,我)(国)(法)(律)(对)(此)(缺)(乏)(相)(关)(规)(定)(,理)(论)(上)(主)(要)(有)(血)(缘)(说)(、分)(娩)(说)(、契)(约)(说)((或)(称)(人)(工)(生)(殖)(目)(的)(说)()、子)(女)(利)(益)(最)(佳)(说)(之)(四)(种)(学)(说)(。
  我)(们)(认)(为)(,“分)(娩)(说)(”符)(合)(传)(统)(民)(法)(中)(“分)(娩)(者)(为)(母)(”的)(认)(定)(原)(则)(,亦)(与)(其)(他)(两)(种)(人)(工)(生)(殖)(方)(式)(中)(的)(亲)(子)(关)(系)(认)(定)(标)(准)(相)(同)(,且)(符)(合)(我)(国)(传)(统)(的)(伦)(理)(原)(则)(及)(价)(值)(观)(念)(。
  另)(外)(,“分)(娩)(者)(为)(母)(”的)(认)(定)(原)(则)(亦)(与)(我)(国)(目)(前)(对)(代)(孕)(行)(为)(的)(禁)(止)(立)(场)(相)(一)(致)(。由)(此)(认)(定)(,本)(案)(中)(作)(为)(代)(孕)(所)(生)(子)(女)(,其)(法)(律)(上)(的)(亲)(生)(母)(亲)(应)(根)(据)(“分)(娩)(者)(为)(母)(”原)(则)(认)(定)(为)(代)(孕)(者)(;法)(律)(上)(的)(生)(父)(则)(为)(具)(有)(血)(缘)(关)(系)(的)(林)(西)(。由)(于)(林)(西)(与)(代)(孕)(者)(之)(间)(不)(具)(有)(合)(法)(的)(婚)(姻)(关)(系)(,故)(所)(生)(子)(女)(当)(属)(非)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(。
  现)(实)(“妈)(妈)(”相)(当)(于)(继)(母)(
  她)(来)(监)(护)(有)(利)(于)(孩)(子)(成)(长)(
  继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(的)(子)(女)(范)(围)(不)(应)(仅)(限)(于)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(,亦)(应)(包)(括)(非)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(。而)(《婚)(姻)(法)(》在)(区)(分)(直)(系)(姻)(亲)(和)(拟)(制)(血)(亲)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(时)(,是)(以)(是)(否)(存)(在)(抚)(养)(教)(育)(的)(事)(实)(作)(为)(衡)(量)(标)(准)(的)(,至)(于)(子)(女)(的)(出)(生)(时)(间)(在)(缔)(结)(婚)(姻)(之)(前)(还)(是)(之)(后)(,并)(非)(认)(定)(有)(抚)(养)(关)(系)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(的)(实)(质)(要)(件)(。五)(年)(来)(李)(鹃)(已)(完)(全)(将)(两)(名)(孩)(子)(视)(为)(自)(己)(的)(子)(女)(,并)(履)(行)(了)(作)(为)(一)(名)(母)(亲)(对)(孩)(子)(的)(抚)(养)(、保)(护)(、教)(育)(、照)(顾)(等)(诸)(项)(义)(务)(,故)(应)(认)(定)(双)(方)(之)(间)(已)(形)(成)(有)(抚)(养)(关)(系)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(。这)(一)(拟)(制)(血)(亲)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(一)(旦)(形)(成)(,并)(不)(因)(夫)(妻)(中)(生)(父)(母)(一)(方)(的)(死)(亡)(而)(解)(除)(,故)(林)(西)(的)(死)(亡)(并)(不)(能)(使)(李)(鹃)(与)(两)(名)(孩)(子)(之)(间)(已)(存)(在)(的)(有)(抚)(养)(关)(系)(的)(继)(父)(母)(子)(女)(关)(系)(自)(然)(终)(止)(。
  无)(论)(对)(非)(法)(代)(孕)(行)(为)(如)(何)(否)(定)(与)(谴)(责)(,代)(孕)(所)(生)(子)(女)(当)(属)(无)(辜)(,其)(合)(法)(权)(益)(理)(应)(得)(到)(法)(律)(保)(护)(。因)(此)(,不)(管)(是)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(还)(是)(非)(婚)(生)(子)(女)(,是)(自)(然)(生)(育)(子)(女)(抑)(或)(是)(以)(人)(工)(生)(殖)(方)(式)(包)(括)(代)(孕)(方)(式)(所)(生)(子)(女)(,均)(应)(给)(予)(一)(体)(同)(等)(保)(护)(。根)(据)(儿)(童)(最)(大)(利)(益)(原)(则)(,从)(双)(方)(的)(监)(护)(能)(力)(、孩)(子)(对)(生)(活)(环)(境)(及)(情)(感)(的)(需)(求)(、家)(庭)(结)(构)(完)(整)(性)(对)(孩)(子)(的)(影)(响)(等)(各)(方)(面)(考)(虑)(,监)(护)(权)(归)(李)(鹃)(更)(有)(利)(于)(孩)(子)(的)(健)(康)(成)(长)(。据)(此)(认)(定)(,小)(花)(、小)(军)(的)(监)(护)(权)(应)(归)(于)(李)(鹃)(。
  (齐)(鲁)(晚)(报)(·齐)(鲁)(壹)(点)(特)(派)(记)(者)(宋)(立)(山)(,综)(合)(新)(华)(社)(、上)(海)(观)(察)(等)(文)(中)(当)(事)(人)(均)(为)(化)(名)()
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